Once upon a time i heard a story of pepper and pyramids. From that i concluded that the Gargantuan Pyramids were not built by punishment but by reward. This was the main Economic Activity of the Ancient World. It kept many people busy in those days, even today it supports an entire industry and makes tourists ecstatic and nostalgic.
The secret of Management of Ancient Egypt was Pepper, The other Technique, Whipping just did not work (it probably increased Healthcare costs). Pepper made them work harder and even the Pharaoh remained in his cubicle/cabin a few hours more. Pepper became the currency, this lead to The “Pepper Standard”.
In the Perpandle (Perpetual Candle) below, A cap from a Salt/Pepper Set had to be used in this upgrade. This Peppering is dedicated to the Egyptians who worshiped the Sun. They knew one day we all will depend on Solar Energy. Perpetual Candle Project moves onward. Completes One Year only with Aesthetic Fixes. No Electronic Failures as it uses Ni-Cd Batteries and sensible conservative design. The second version the LEDs and Resistors was built into an Acrylic Like Transparent Salt/Pepper Spherical cap. On it was mounted a Transparent cupboard knob, giving it that exotic Byzantine look.
The Pharaohs and their Administrative Team displayed rare Genius. Not only they created employment opportunities in that era, but also made a Pension Plan for the descendants of that Ancient Land. It’s working even today.
The foundation is a Gaming Joystick, the Center piece is a bamboo tube. The bottom of this pipe is a brass part. A autotransformer dial is the big washer. The LEDs on both sides of a PCB in a Translucent Plastic Measurement Cup which comes with Vitamin Tonics.
The Center piece is a bamboo tube. The bottom of this pipe is a brass part. A autotransformer dial is the big washer. The LED array is from a Failed Lamp and The Internal support is a 10 CD Box. The Top Byzantine Structure is a Pepper Cap from Africa and a Furniture Knob.
Perpetual Candle – Emergency Light 1W using LEDs, Solar panel can be also integrated with a single diode at input of LM317T. If your Solar Panel Voltage is low then use a DC/DC Converter or Joule Thief.
This is a easy to build LED lamp circuit for Learning and building skills. This is the first draft schematic V 1.0. It will need improvements for Higher Power Lighting.
I will give a short summary, The LM317 here configured for around 6.4V DC. The Q3 BC547 limits the current, you can select R3 to suit, make it 1/2W. The Ni-Cd battery pack 1.2 * 4 will not get Over-Current or Over-Voltage due to this circuit.
The IRF540 Mosfet or any other equivalent you have around, along with Q2 BC547 forms a current source for the parallel 12 LED array. Ultra-bright White LED at 20mA each or use a 1W ready LED Chip. R4/R6 can be selected for the Max LED current. The voltage of LED is around 3.1 and 20mA * 12 = 240mA is the max current. You can Tweak the design for even 5A or more but then you will need a DC/DC High frequency converter in place of LM317. The Current source also needs to switch to improve efficiency. A PWM on the mosfet gives brightness control. The entire solution (switching) can be found in many chips with semiconductor vendors today.
Also use Heatsinks for both devices, may not be required, test is out.
Most of the parts in this are more than a decade old. The Brass part may cover even a century. The age of the bamboo tube can only be established after carbon dating. So olden it is, but the design and white leds are more new, this millennium to be exact!