Reference Sites, which are like textbooks.

HyperPhysics is an exploration environment for concepts in physics which employs concept maps and other linking strategies to facilitate smooth navigation. For the most part, it is laid out in small segments or “cards”, true to its original development in HyperCard. The entire environment is interconnected with thousands of links, reminiscent of a neural network..

Electronics Concepts at HyperPhysics

Students should go thru this website from cover-to-cover, It is a work of knowledge that is priceless

Ampere Law at HyperPhysics

Ampere’s Law at HyperPhysics

“Ampere’s Law states that for any closed loop path, the sum of the length elements times the magnetic field in the direction of the length element is equal to the permeability times the electric current enclosed in the loop.”

This site’s purpose is to address the lack of technical information for some of the rarer vintage computers and related peripherals, with a strong focus on SWTPC.

Radio-Electronics and Popular Electronics – SWTPC

More than 600 pages of assembly instructions, schematics, program listings, catalogs, photos and much, much more! – Bill’s Knowledge Base, Michael Holley’s massive SWTPC doc collection.

Radio-Electronics and Popular Electronics

Popular Electronics was created in 1954 by Ziff-Davis Publishing for an audience of  electronics hobbyists and experimenters. It soon became the “World’s Largest-Selling Electronics Magazine”. The circulation was 240,000 by 1957 and exceeded 400,000 by 1963. Rival “Electronics World” was merged into “Popular Electronics” in 1972.

Radio Electronics was the “new” name for Radio Craft magazine.. Hugo Gernsback, sometimes called The Father of Science Fiction, started it as Radio-Craft in July 1929. The title was changed to Radio-Electronics in October 1948. In July of 1992 transitioned to “Electronics Now”.

This is one IC that is like a E-LEGO, this along with Op-Amps and other components can make many interesting projects. Probably the very first Datasheet and Application Note of 555 t he e-lego.

Signetics made the 555,  On some pins like Control Voltage it responds to analog signals and on Reset and Output the signals are Digital like. The 7555 a CMOS version consumes lower power and oscillates at higher frequencies.

NE555 Applications and Specifications

555 trigger voltage cartoon

This evergreen or perennial chip is the favorite among students and hobbyists who want to learn electronics. Here is an original datasheet from Signetics i found online, it has very nice illustrations which will act as an appetizer for learning this science.

I want students to look into these specs pages as it will make your study more invigorating

555 Timer based Circuits – delabs

Signetics made the 555, This is one IC that is like a E-LEGO, this along with Op-Amps and other components can make…

555 The most Incredible Chip

Create an innovative 555 design today, the 555 should be the heart of the circuit. Here are some pages having 555…

I saw some photos of products, some images were good, some focus lost, few of them dim. Even i had lot of trouble with photographing objects. So here is a collection of resources to improve this skill of Indoor Macro photography.

Macro photography  is extreme close-up photography, usually of very small subjects and living organisms like insects. Electronic Product Photography is a Branch of commercial photography and similar in most respects to food photography.

 food and product photography

Macro photography

Apart from technical photography and film-based processes, where the size of the image on the negative or image sensor is the subject of discussion, the finished print or on-screen image more commonly lends a photograph its macro status.

“Macro” lenses specifically designed for close-up work, with a long barrel for close focusing and optimized for high reproduction ratios, are one of the most common tools for macro photography. (Unlike most other lens makers,

Plonsky – Macrophotography Article

“….see the bug in more detail than we could in real life. That is what got me started and what I enjoy so much about macros. They let you see what you ordinarily cannot. As a scientist, I am quite curious by nature…”